Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations.

Maru Mormina, Pedro Soares, Jean Trejaut, Teresa Rito, Bruno Cavadas, Catherine Hill, Ken Khong Eng, Andreia Brandao, Ross Fraser, Tse-Yi Wang, Jun-Hun Loo, Christopher Snell, Tsang-Ming Ko, Antonio Amorim, Maria Pala, Vincent Macaulay, David Bulbeck, James Wilson, Leonor Gusmao, Luisa Pereira & 3 others Stephen Oppenheimer, Marie Lin, Martin Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-326
JournalHuman Genetics
Volume135
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2016

Keywords

  • genetic evidence
  • prehistory
  • Island Southeast Asia (ISEA)
  • Neolithic Austronesian speakers
  • language dispersal
  • migration

Cite this

Mormina, M., Soares, P., Trejaut, J., Rito, T., Cavadas, B., Hill, C., ... Richards, M. (2016). Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations. 135(3), 309-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z
Mormina, Maru ; Soares, Pedro ; Trejaut, Jean ; Rito, Teresa ; Cavadas, Bruno ; Hill, Catherine ; Eng, Ken Khong ; Brandao, Andreia ; Fraser, Ross ; Wang, Tse-Yi ; Loo, Jun-Hun ; Snell, Christopher ; Ko, Tsang-Ming ; Amorim, Antonio ; Pala, Maria ; Macaulay, Vincent ; Bulbeck, David ; Wilson, James ; Gusmao, Leonor ; Pereira, Luisa ; Oppenheimer, Stephen ; Lin, Marie ; Richards, Martin. / Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations. 2016 ; Vol. 135, No. 3. pp. 309-326.
@article{65dba7d59c9944129071be709ce4a9b3,
title = "Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations.",
abstract = "There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.",
keywords = "genetic evidence, prehistory, Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), Neolithic Austronesian speakers, language dispersal, migration",
author = "Maru Mormina and Pedro Soares and Jean Trejaut and Teresa Rito and Bruno Cavadas and Catherine Hill and Eng, {Ken Khong} and Andreia Brandao and Ross Fraser and Tse-Yi Wang and Jun-Hun Loo and Christopher Snell and Tsang-Ming Ko and Antonio Amorim and Maria Pala and Vincent Macaulay and David Bulbeck and James Wilson and Leonor Gusmao and Luisa Pereira and Stephen Oppenheimer and Marie Lin and Martin Richards",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z",
language = "English",
volume = "135",
pages = "309--326",
number = "3",

}

Mormina, M, Soares, P, Trejaut, J, Rito, T, Cavadas, B, Hill, C, Eng, KK, Brandao, A, Fraser, R, Wang, T-Y, Loo, J-H, Snell, C, Ko, T-M, Amorim, A, Pala, M, Macaulay, V, Bulbeck, D, Wilson, J, Gusmao, L, Pereira, L, Oppenheimer, S, Lin, M & Richards, M 2016, 'Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations.' vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 309-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z

Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations. / Mormina, Maru; Soares, Pedro; Trejaut, Jean; Rito, Teresa; Cavadas, Bruno; Hill, Catherine; Eng, Ken Khong; Brandao, Andreia; Fraser, Ross; Wang, Tse-Yi; Loo, Jun-Hun; Snell, Christopher; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Amorim, Antonio; Pala, Maria; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Wilson, James; Gusmao, Leonor; Pereira, Luisa; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin.

Vol. 135, No. 3, 18.01.2016, p. 309-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations.

AU - Mormina, Maru

AU - Soares, Pedro

AU - Trejaut, Jean

AU - Rito, Teresa

AU - Cavadas, Bruno

AU - Hill, Catherine

AU - Eng, Ken Khong

AU - Brandao, Andreia

AU - Fraser, Ross

AU - Wang, Tse-Yi

AU - Loo, Jun-Hun

AU - Snell, Christopher

AU - Ko, Tsang-Ming

AU - Amorim, Antonio

AU - Pala, Maria

AU - Macaulay, Vincent

AU - Bulbeck, David

AU - Wilson, James

AU - Gusmao, Leonor

AU - Pereira, Luisa

AU - Oppenheimer, Stephen

AU - Lin, Marie

AU - Richards, Martin

PY - 2016/1/18

Y1 - 2016/1/18

N2 - There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.

AB - There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.

KW - genetic evidence

KW - prehistory

KW - Island Southeast Asia (ISEA)

KW - Neolithic Austronesian speakers

KW - language dispersal

KW - migration

U2 - 10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z

DO - 10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z

M3 - Article

VL - 135

SP - 309

EP - 326

IS - 3

ER -

Mormina M, Soares P, Trejaut J, Rito T, Cavadas B, Hill C et al. Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian‑speaking populations. 2016 Jan 18;135(3):309-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z